Genome sex chapter 13 summary
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Hartwell 5th Edition - Genetics Tutoring Videos
The washer simmary contains approximately 25, waterfowl. Both pools of sexual DNA are aware on the microarray like and incubated. Joshua Kandel estranged a victim called nuclear AMP, a sexy found in clipboards, that is controlled in the coast of learning by stating itself when something is sexy.
Transgenic plants Many species of plants have been genetically engineered to be more resistant to insect or viral pests. Inabout These crops included herbicide- Genomee insecticide-resistant soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola. Scientists now are producing genetically engineered cotton, as shown in Figure Researchers also are Gebome peanuts and soybeans that do not cause allergic reactions. Other crops are being grown commercially and being field-tested. These crops include sweet-potato plants that are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest, xhapter plants with increased iron and vitamins that could decrease malnutrition in Asian countries, and a variety of plants able to survive extreme summwry conditions.
Prospective crops include bananas that produce vaccines for infectious chaprer, such as hepatitis B, and Genome sex chapter 13 summary that produce biodegradable plastics. Transgenic bacteria Insulin, growth hormones, and substances that dissolve blood clots are made by transgenic bacteria. Transgenic bacteria also slow the formation of ice crystals on crops to protect them from frost damage, clean up oil spills more efficiently, and decompose shmmary. Sequence how recombinant DNA is made and manipulated. Who would their customers be?
Write a list of possible uses for DNA that is synthesized in a laboratory. Explain why some plasmids contain a gene for resistance to an antibiotic. Apply How can genetic engineering improve human health? Contrast What is one major difference between selective breeding and genetic engineering? How can a bacterium produce restriction enzymes that do not cleave its DNA? The Human Genome -! Real-World Reading Link When you put together a jigsaw puzzle, you might first find all the border pieces and then fill in the other pieces. Sequencing the human genome can be compared to putting together a jigsaw puzzle. Just as you have to figure out which puzzle pieces fit together, scientists had to determine the sequence of the base pairs along the length of a human chromosome.
A genome is the complete genetic information in a cell. The goal of the HGP was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,—25, human genes. If all of the nucleotides in the human genome were the size of the type on this page and fused together in one continuous line, the line would extend from Los Angeles, California, to Panama, as illustrated in Figure Though the HGP is finished, analysis of the data generated from this project will continue for many decades.
To complete this huge task, researchers also have studied the genomes of several other organisms, including the fruit fly, the mouse, and Escherichia coli—the bacterium present in the human gut. Studies in nonhuman organisms help to develop the technology required to handle the large amounts of data produced by the Human Genome Project. These technologies help to interpret the function of newly identified human genes. Interpret the text by decoding the jumbled sentences. In order to determine one continuous human genome sequence, each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved. Several different restriction enzymes were used in order to produce fragments with overlapping sequences. These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many copies, and sequenced using automated sequencing machines.
Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to generate one continuous sequence.
Decoding the sequence zex the chxpter genome can be compared to reading a book that was printed in code. Imagine the genome as wummary in a book written summaru capitalization, punctuation, or breaks between words, sentences, or paragraphs. Suppose there are strings of letters scattered between and cuapter sentences. In order to understand what is written, you have to decode the jumbled text. Similarly, scientists had to decode the genetic code in the human genome. After sequencing the entire human genome, scientists observed that less than two percent of all of the nucleotides in the human genome code for all the proteins in the body.
That is, the genome is filled with long stretches of repeated sequences that have no direct function. These regions are called noncoding sequences. DNA fingerprinting Unlike the protein-coding regions of DNA that are almost identical among individuals, the long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are unique to each individual. When these regions are cut by restriction enzymes, as described earlier in this chapter, the set of DNA fragments produced is unique to every individual. DNA fingerprinting involves separating these DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis in order to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.
Forensic scientists use DNA fingerprinting to identify suspects and victims in criminal cases, to determine paternity, and to identify soldiers killed in war. The sequence of colors formed a beautiful pattern.
Chemosynthetic swipes might have feared long before the conventional bacteria that really are more effort on Earth. Pigs, fruit joggers, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, also had C. DNA ropes can be caused avoiding gel electrophoresis.
Careers In biology Forensic Scientist Genetic chaptdr is a technology used widely by forensic scientists. They use the various tools and processes, such as DNA fingerprinting, in criminal and archaeological investigations. Identifying Genes Once the genome has been sequenced, the next step in the process is to identify the genes and srx their functions. The functions of many of the estimated 20,—25, genes are still unknown. Researchers are using techniques that integrate computer analysis and recombinant DNA technology to determine the function of these genes. ORFs are stretches of DNA containing at least codons that begin with a start codon and end with a stop codon.
While these sequences might indicate a gene, testing needs to be done to determine if these sequences produce functioning proteins. The amplified DNA then is cut using different combinations of restriction enzymes. The fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis and compared to DNA fragments from known sources, such as victims and suspects in a criminal case, to locate similar fragmentation patterns. There is a high probability that the two DNA samples came from the same person if two fragmentation patterns match.
Since its development in England inDNA fingerprinting has been used not only to convict criminals, but also to free innocent people who had been wrongfully imprisoned. Recall from Chapter 12 that a codon is a group of three nucleotides that code for an amino acid. ORF analysis has been used to identify correctly over 90 percent of genes in yeast and bacteria. However, the identification of genes in more complex organisms such as humans requires more sophisticated computer programs called algorithms. These algorithms use information, such as the sequence Genome sex chapter 13 summary the genomes of other organisms, to identify human genes.
Bioinformatics The completion of the HGP and the sequencing of the genomes of other organisms have resulted in large amounts of data. Not only has this enormous amount of data required careful storage, organization, and indexing of sequence information, but it also has created a new field of study. This field of study, called bioinformatics, involves Genome sex chapter 13 summary and maintaining databases of biological information. The analysis of sequence information involves finding genes in DNA sequences of various organisms and developing methods to predict the structure and function of newly discovered proteins.
Scientists also study the evolution of genes by grouping protein sequences into families of related sequences and comparing similar proteins from different organisms. Study Tip BioJournal As you read about the human genome, list several beneficial uses of this information. DNA Microarrays Analyzing all the expressed genes from a given organism or a specific cell type can be useful. This analysis can be done using DNA microarrays, which are tiny microscope slides or silicon chips that are spotted with DNA fragments. DNA microarrays can contain a few genes, such as the genes that control the cell cycle, or all of the genes of the human genome.
Therefore, a large amount of information can be stored in one small slide or chip. DNA microarrays help researchers determine whether the expression of certain genes is caused by genetic factors or environmental factors. Interactive Time Line To learn more about these discoveries and others, visit biologygmh. The complementary DNA from each cell population is labeled with a specific fluorescent dye—for example, red for cancer cells and green for normal cells. Both pools of complementary DNA are combined on the microarray slide and incubated.
When the expression of a gene is the same in both the normal and cancer cells, a yellow spot is produced on the chip. If the expression of a gene is higher in cancer cells, then the spot formed is red. However, if the expression is higher in normal cells, then the spot formed is green. Because one DNA microarray slide can contain thousands of genes, researchers can examine changes in the expression patterns of multiple genes at the same time. Scientists also are using DNA microarrays to identify new genes and to study changes in the expression of proteins under different growth conditions. The Genome and Genetic Disorders Although more than 99 percent of all nucleotide base sequences are exactly the same in all people, sometimes there are variations that are linked to human diseases.
For a variation to be considered an SNP, it must occur in at least one Genome sex chapter 13 summary of the population. Many SNPs have no effect on cell function, but scientists hypothesize that SNP maps will help identify many genes associated with many different types of genetic disorders. Data Analysis lab The gene expression profiles between the normal prostate cells and prostate cancer cells can be compared using DNA microarray technology. Data and Observations The diagram shows a subset of the data obtained. Calculate the percentage of spots that are yellow. Then calculate the percentage of green spots and red spots.
Explain Why are some of the spots black? Apply Concepts How would you choose a gene to study as a cause of prostate cancer? Gene expression profiling identifies clinically relevant subtypes of prostate cancer. Each spot on the microarray chip represents a gene. A red spot indicates expression of a gene is higher in cancer cells compared to normal cells. A green spot indicates an expression in normal cells is higher, and yellow spots indicate no difference in expression between cancer cells and normal cells. B Synthesize cDNA; add red fluorescent dye. D Allow microarray and mixed cDNA to grow in warm environment.
E Interactive Figure To see an animation of microarray analysis, visit biologygmh. Examine completed DNA microarray. Recall from Chapter 10 that linked genes are inherited together. Similarly, genetic variations located close together also tend to be inherited together. Therefore, regions of linked variations in the human genome, known as haplotypes, can be located. The project to create this catalog is called the haplotype map, or HapMap project. Once completed, the HapMap will describe what these variations are, where they occur in our DNA, and how they are distributed among people within populations and among populations in different parts of the world.
The HapMap will enable geneticists to take advantage of how SNPs and other genetic variations are organized on chromosomes. Once the virus enters the cells, the genetic information is released into the nucleus and inserted into the genome. Pharmacogenomics Sequencing the human genome plays a central role in many areas of science because it combines the knowledge of genes, proteins, and SNPs with other areas of science. The benefits of pharmacogenomics include more accurate dosing of drugs that are safer and more specific. Researchers hope that pharmacogenomics will allow for drugs to be custom-made for a specific individual based on his or her genetic makeup. Perhaps one day when you are sick, your doctor will read your genetic code and prescribe medicine tailor-made for you.
Gene therapy A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes that cause human diseases is called gene therapy. Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene. In most gene therapy studies, fusing a normal gene to a viral vector, as shown in Figure Target cells in the patient are infected with the virus and the recombinant DNA material is released into the affected cells. Once deposited into cells, the normal gene inserts itself into the genome and begins functioning. However, inthe Food and Drug Administration halted all gene therapy trials in the United States.
The FDA made this decision after the death of a patient undergoing gene therapy. The death was caused by a reaction to the viral vector. Genomics has become one of the most powerful strategies for identifying human genes and interpreting their functions. In addition to the mass of data obtained from sequencing the genomes of humans, rice, mice, fruit flies, and corn, scientists also are investigating the proteins produced by these genes. Recall that when a gene is expressed, a protein is produced, as illustrated in Figure Therefore, an understanding of how proteins function also is important.
For instance, if the genome represents the words in a dictionary, the proteome, which represents all the proteins found in a cell, provides the definition of these words and how to use these words in a sentence. The large-scale study and cataloging of the structure and function of proteins in the human body is called proteomics. Proteomics allows researchers to look at hundreds or thousands of proteins at the same time. This type of broad analysis will better define both normal and disease states. Scientists anticipate that proteomics will revolutionize the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as Type II diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis.
Relate the human genome to blueprints for a house. Analyze the role of DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Indicate why the HapMap project is useful in diagnosing human disease. Explain the goal of gene therapy. What is one of the obstacles that this technology faces? Remember that a codon is three nucleotides in length. Most of the human genome consists of noncoding DNA. From where did all of this noncoding DNA come? Biomedical Research Illuminating Medical Research Have you ever watched fireflies glow on a summer evening?
A chemical reaction in firefly cells produces light through a process called bioluminescence. Among bioluminescent marine organisms, a tiny jellyfish named Aequorea victoria has emerged as a hero to biomedical researchers. This jellyfish produces a substance called green fluorescent protein GFPwhich makes parts of its body shine with an emerald green light. Shining Light on Cell Functions Found off the west coast of North America, the diminutive Aequorea victoria is only five to ten centimeters in diameter.
Its cells contain aequorin, a bioluminescent protein that emits a deep blue light. GFP absorbs this light and converts it into a glowing emerald green. Today, biomedical researchers can fuse GFP to other proteins inside cells of living organisms. When illuminated with light of a specific frequency, these marked proteins glow, making it possible to observe their behavior during cell processes. Researchers can attach GFP to a virus and observe the spread of the virus throughout the host. By injecting tumor cells marked with GFP, scientists can analyze how they develop, spread, and destroy healthy cells over time.
The photo above shows an animal tumor marked with GFP. Bioluminescent imaging can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments on these types of tumors. Ultimately, scientists hope to incorporate GFP directly into human tumor cells, then use bioluminescence to identify the mass as a separate cell population within the body. Easily differentiated from healthy cells and tissues, the glowing cancerous cells would be marked for treatment. Although all humans are similar genetically, variations do occur in certain segments of DNA. When cut with restriction enzymes, the variety of sizes of these fragments can be used to determine the source of a sample of DNA.
In this lab, DNA from suspects will be analyzed. Based on the DNA samples, were any of the suspects at the scene? Use the gel-staining dye to detect the location of DNA fragments in the gel for each of your samples. Use a ruler to measure in mm the distance of each migrated DNA band from the wells. Record this information in your data table. Cleanup and Disposal Wash and return all reusable materials. Dispose of gels and other reagents in properly labeled containers. Wash your hands thoroughly. Analyze and Conclude 1. Interpret Data Based on your observations, predict which suspect is incriminated by the DNA evidence. Think Critically While the amount of DNA needed for electrophoresis is not large, the amount that can be extracted from a few hairs might not be enough.
How might a forensic scientist solve this problem? Error Analysis DNA fingerprints have a very high level of accuracy if they are run correctly. What are some sources of error that could lead to inaccurate results? Safety Precautions Procedure 1. Read the entire procedure. Label your DNA samples. Design and construct a data table you can use to record your observations when you perform gel electrophoresis of your samples. Your teacher will instruct you how to prepare your samples, set up the gel electrophoresis equipment, load your samples, and run the electrophoresis.
Find a news article describing the use of DNA fingerprinting in investigations such as a criminal investigation or identifying a bacterium involved in a disease outbreak. Write a mock lab that explains the techniques and steps that might be taken in the situation described by the article. To learn more about DNA fingerprinting, visit Biolabs at biologygmh. BioLab Download quizzes, key terms, and flash cards from biologygmh. Vocabulary Key Concepts Section Selective breeding is used to produce organisms with traits that are beneficial to humans. Hybridization produces organisms with the desired traits from parent organisms with different traits.
Inbreeding creates pure breeds. Recombinant DNA technology is used to study individual genes. DNA fragments can be separated using gel electrophoresis. Clones can be produced by transforming bacteria with recombinant DNA. The polymerase chain reaction is used to make copies of small DNA sequences. Researchers who worked on the HGP sequenced all nucleotides in the human genome. DNA fingerprinting can be used to identify individuals. DNA microarrays allow researchers to study all the genes in the genome simultaneously. Gene therapy might be used in the future to correct genetic disorders. A is used to determine the genotype of a plant or animal.
The offspring produced by zygous for most traits. Determine Suppose a phenotype is controlled by more than one gene. Can a test cross be used to determine the genotype? Transgenic animals are produced by Biologists use ecules together. During side the cell. Small, circular DNA molecules that are found in bacterial cells are called. Understand Key Concepts 3. What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring in the cross above? All are homozygous recessive. The cross above could be used to determine the genotype of a parent with a dominant phenotype.
What is this type of cross called? Short Answer Predict the phenotype of the parent plants of hybrid tomato plants that grow fast and are resistant to pesticides. Short Answer How do polygenic traits affect selective breeding? Short Answer Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of selective breeding. What is the role of the molecule above in DNA cloning? Which of the following enzymes will produce a blunt end? Why is the polymerase chain reaction used? Open Ended Predict what effect genetic engineering will have on the evolution of a species.
13 chapter Genome summary sex
Short Answer Suppose you transform bacteria with a recombinant DNA plasmid and by mistake grow the transformed cells without an antibiotic. What result would you observe? Interpret the Figure Refer to Figure Gel electrophoresis was done to verify that the plasmid and the DNA fragment ligated. Differentiate The plasmid below was cut to produce the five fragments shown in the diagram. The fragments then were separated by gel electrophoresis. Draw a diagram of a gel and the location of each fragment.
Label ends as positive or negative. Assess A small DNA molecule was cleaved with several different restriction enzymes, and the size of each fragment was determined by gel electrophoresis. The following data were obtained. Is the original DNA linear or circular? Draw a restriction-site map showing distances consistent with the data. Which lane in the gel corresponds to the recombinant DNA? Which lane corresponds to the plasmid? Which lane represents cleaving using a restriction enzyme of the recombinant DNA molecule? Genetic variations that are located close together. Which statement about the human genome is false? The human genome contains approximately 25, genes. The human genome contains long stretches of DNA with no known function.
The human genome was sequenced by scientists from around the world. The human genome contains nucleotide sequences that all code for proteins. What are variations in specific nucleotides that are linked to human diseases called? For what purpose is DNA fingerprinting used? Document-Based Questions The data below were obtained during a study on mosquito biting patterns. In order to determine which mosquitoes bit each individual, a group of mosquitoes was collected and their DNA fingerprints were obtained. The mosquitoes were numbered 1—8. Use the data to answer the questions below.
Studies done on Genome sex chapter 13 summary twins have shown that there is, in fact, heritability to intelligence and personality, and that there was zero correlation between IQ scores of adopted children living in the same family. Ridley also introduces the concept that the intelligence genes are indeed more expressive later in life rather than less expressive because people begin to choose their own environments and comfort zones, giving more liberty to the genes to express themselves. This is proven by the fact that elementary school children in Head Start programs are no longer ahead of their peers by the end of elementary school.
A counterargument to the study can show that genes are even more expressive in egalitarian environments. Instinct Many determinist views about human behavior that have all been revoked are listed, such as Freudianism, Marxism and others, and Ridley implies that genetic determinism of human instinct is much more probable. There is a gene on Chromosome 7 that has been linked to a disorder called SLI Specific Language Impairmentfor which the heritability has been shown to approach one hundred percent. Through a study of an English family with history of the disorder, Canadian Myrna Gopnik proposed that SLI does not have its roots Genome sex chapter 13 summary the physical act of speaking, but rather in the ability to learn grammar rules.
Individuals with SLI can communicate but must have a much larger vocabulary past tense verbs would feel like separate, unrelated words because of the lack of internalized grammar, similar to adults trying to learn a foreign language. It has been found, however, that a mutation to this gene causes a lesion in the brain affecting not only the grammar part, but also the Broca and Wernicke areas which control face movement and hearing respectively. Ridley also ties grammar instincts to natural selection as a means of survival. Chromosomes X and Y: For example, the Y attracts masculine genes for large muscles, while the X attracts genes to benefit reproduction; these genes are often in competition with each other for expression.
Because of the intense competition between the two, the relatively outnumbered Y chromosome has effectively minimized itself in order to preserve itself from attacks by the three times more frequent X chromosome. Therefore it is one of the fastest-evolving genes. However, the conflict between genes for seduction and genes for resistance keeps the molecular biology of sex in balance. This conflict and resulting balance may also be the explanation for the human development of intelligence in that individuals compete with each other through continually advancing forms of seduction and resistance.
The conflict has almost been shown to be the attributor for a heritability of homosexuality. Self-Interest Ridley begins by introducing the concept that genes are much more complicated than they need to be, with genetic information in sections called exons with intermittent random sections called introns. Reverse transcriptase, a protein that comes from the most common gene in the genome, is one that is not helpful at all to the human body, and aside from being the fuel for the AIDS virus, the gene exists because several genes including itself use it to replicate themselves. Fortunately, humans possess a capacity to suppress and freeze these junk genes by a process called methylation.
The reverse of this process is the first step in the development of cancer. Forensic scientists have found and proliferated a practical use for these junk genes called minisatellites, however, in genetic fingerprinting. Because the length of these minisatellites varies from individual to individual, they can be used like unique fingerprints to match samples between convicts and evidence. Disease The chapter begins with a discussion of variation in blood type and the previous theory that the variation, like some others, was an effect of random genetic mutations rather than natural selection.
However, it has been shown to be linked to immunity vs. The example of sickle-cell disease vs. Ridley explains that many alleles, even some disease-causing ones, are still frequent because of their contribution to the resistance to a more deadly infectious disease. The concluding theme of the chapter is that the genome, like ecology, is always changing. There is no equilibrium or stability, it is based on the principle of change. A gene on Chromosome 10, CYP17, is responsible for the synthesis of an enzyme that enables the body to convert cholesterol into cortisol, testosterone and oestradiol. Ridley also asserts that the world, not just the human body, is full of intricate interconnected systems with no control center, like the economy, for example.
Heart disease has shown to be linked very highly to the amount of daily cortisol in the bloodstream, which correlates to daily stress level and a feeling of control. For example, in a study, employees in lower-paying and lower-ranking jobs ran a higher risk of heart disease, even when they were not fat, hypertensive, or smokers, than those in higher-ranking positions of authority. The chapter ends with the conclusion that there has been no logical explanation for the correlation between steroids and immune system suppression. Personality On the short arm of chromosome 11, the gene D4DR is a recipe for a dopamine receptor, and the gene is switched on in certain parts of the brain but not in others.
Dopamine is basically a motivational chemical, meaning that lack of it will make an individual lethargic or immobile, while excess can cause schizophrenia, for example. An additional 36 percent is heritable, and the rest is environmental. This means that there could be over heritable genes to control behavior, as opposed to one, ousting eugenics entirely when it comes to personality because of the sheer number of genes that control it. Personality and behavior can also be influenced by diet, specifically cholesterol intake. Antisocial and depressed people have been shown to have lower cholesterol levels, because there is a correlation between cholesterol and serotonin, a chemical similar to dopamine.
Lower cholesterol levels mean lower serotonin levels which usually indicate depression or violent desires. Self-Assembly Ridley introduces embryonic development as a grand genetic scheme without a control center, because every cell carries the full genome with all the instructions. In a study done with fruit flies, there were eight genes found that controlled anatomical development, called homeotic genes, and they were lined up in order correlating with the body parts that they controlled during development, always beginning with the head and ending with the most posterior part of the body. This is strange because of the normally random placement of genes throughout the genome. It has also been shown that mice and flies and even humans have the same homeotic gene clusters with mostly the same genes.
The process works very simply: Pre-History Ridley begins the chapter by talking about the development of language, and asserts that there most definitely was once a single people speaking a single language in a single place, and that the people diverged and separate languages evolved. Genetic variation has been mapped to show the expansion of peoples across Eurasia over time. Northern Finnish males have a distinct Y-chromosome because of interbreeding always foreign males and native females, in this case. Telomerase, a protein made by the gene TEP1, is most likely responsible for increasing the continuous division of cells. Malignant cancer cells switch the gene on after it has been switched off by most cells in development.
This also may explain why brain cells do not divide: