Amateur theater form
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Fogm theatre-maker and writer Andrew Mckinnon in observed: In theatre specifically, 'amateurism' is regularly used to imply muddled and botched work, low standards, lack of preparation, and so on; indeed, some amateur theatre companies in the For, being aware of this, are even following the American usage by re-branding themselves as 'community' groups. After the formation of amateur Gilbert and Sullivan companies licensed to perform the Savoy operasprofessionals recognised that the amateur societies "support the culture of music and the drama. They are now accepted as useful training schools for the legitimate stage, and from the volunteer ranks have sprung many present-day favourites.
Some amateur companies engage professional directors.
Form Amateur theater
These changes are blurring the distinction between amateur and professional theatre. A Play for the Nation: Even Eleonora Dusethe great Italian actress, declared that for the theatre to theated saved hteater actors would have to die Amatekr the plague. From this flows the present acceptance in the West of a long and intense firm of training as necessary Amateur theater form all actors Amaetur the profession. The Eastern theatre, which Craig and those following him have continually returned to study, has always understood this necessity. He ascribed the short life of some innovative theatres to the fact that they had not adequately studied their predecessors.
The study of theatre history spread widely enough to embrace the for, Oriental theatre forms. The most important effect of this research and use of theatre history was to Amateur theater form stage production from vorm narrow confines of contemporary style and fashion. If the past could be incorporated into the present, an almost limitless range of production possibilities was opened up. This liberation, in turn, increased the demands made upon the actors. Eventually Delsarte codified his observations in a chart of gestures, which was used as a guide for expression and characterization by many amateur theatre companies in the middle years of the 20th century. The further elaborated discipline of reflexology, which seeks to analyze mind—body interaction, was developed by a variety of philosophers and psychologists and was very influential in the early years of the Soviet Union see below Developments in Russia Amateeur the Soviet Union.
Reflexology is also the root from which spring the contemporary areas of drama yheater and the use of games thezter improvisation in actor training. Duncan rejected the narrow and inhibiting classicism of the Russian ballet and returned to the Greeks for inspiration. By using her feelings and physical Amateur theater form to the music as the impulse for movement, she removed dance from the domain of the highly trained ballet dancer and demonstrated its wider potential. Unfortunately, though, Duncan offered no systematic prescription for accomplishing this.
Duncan herself was a sufficiently disciplined artist to impress Edward Gordon Craig as a solo performer. What her approach lacked, however, was a disciplined framework by which other performers could be trained and an extension of the movement dorm that might widen the range of theatrical purposes to which it could be put. Development of stage equipment From a technical point of view, theatre harnessing of electric power fotm a greater Amateur theater form on stage design and production techniques than any other single invention. Stage lighting, as opposed to mere stage illumination, became raised to the status of an art form and revolutionized stage decoration, stage design, and stage form in that order.
For the first time since the theatre moved indoors during the Renaissanceadequate and safe illumination became possible. But beyond mere function and safety there was inherent in the medium a flexibility and subtlety that has allowed it to become an integral part of scenic effect and to heighten visual expression for artistic purposes. Beyond the development of stage lighting and the theories and techniques pioneered by Appia and Craig, electricity provided the solution to many of the problems that were arising with respect to scene changing. The demand for rapid changes of cumbersome naturalistic sets coincided with demands for a dematerialized stage that could flow smoothly from one symbolic vision to another.
Elevator stages permitted new settings to be assembled below stage and then lifted to the height of the stage as the existing setting was withdrawn to the rear and dropped to below-stage level. Slip stages allowed large trucks to be stored in the wings or rear stage and then slid into view. New systems for flying were developed. Hydraulic stages made it possible to raise sections of the stage, tilt them or even rock them to simulate, for example, the motion of a ship. All of these mechanisms required larger backstage facilities, higher flying towers, greater depth and width of stages, and increased understage space.
German theatres began as early as to incorporate mechanized orchestra pit apron lifts, which provided a means for altering the point of contact between stage and auditorium actor and spectator. He held that, in order to be relevant, the theatre must reject the picture-frame stage and the Italianate auditorium. He proposed an indoor amphitheatre in which, on a projecting stage, the action could be thrown forward into the audience space. According to Fuchs, the stage designer should not try to produce an illusion of depth since depth is part of the theatre architecture and cannot be added by scenery. At first, an illusion of depth was achieved by painting perspective scenery on canvas; then the ground plan of the set was rearranged to envelop the actor with the set.
The third phase was the introduction of objects for the actor to touch. Fuchs introduced the final phase joining the playing space to the area in which the audience is situated. The floor of the stage was divided into sections, each of which was mounted on an elevator so that it could easily become a platform. Four cycloramas, surrounding the stage, could be changed electrically. The influence of Reinhardt The director who was best placed to utilize the freedom afforded by the study of theatre history and the new mechanization was Max Reinhardt.
In he joined a small cabaret theatre and began introducing plays into the entertainment. Later, he returned to control the Deutsches Theater, to which he added the smaller Kammerspiele next door. In these theatres and elsewhere he initiated a series of productions that made Berlin one of the outstanding theatrical centres of Europe. Not only did Reinhardt feel at home in two theatres—one small and intimatethe other a medium-size house—he actually preferred the alternation of size and styles. In he staged Oedipus Rex in the Zirkus Schumann, an amphitheatre, in an attempt to recapture the union of actors and audience that had existed in classical Greek theatre.
This theatre was obviously derived from the Dionysian theatre at Athens, and he hoped that it would embody modern life as the arena had embodied the Greek community. Reinhardt was not a traditionalist, however he showed a completely different approach when he converted a ballroom in Vienna into a formally designed intimate theatre ; rather, he was a true eclectic whose more than productions represented virtually every style. He believed that theatre, which had become shackled to literature, must be offered instead for its own sake. He reexamined the physical layout of the theatre building and the spatial relationship between the actors and the audience.
His productions usually featured a particular motif or the staging conventions of a historical period. Reinhardt exerted a strong influence on the designers of the German Expressionist cinema as well as on stage artists. In fact, the first productions of Expressionist plays were mounted under his management. His eclecticism helped to reconcile the differences between conflicting movements by romanticizing the realistic and fleshing out the idealistic with solid structures. Reinhardt made one further great contribution to the development of stage production. Although he exerted considerable power and was the controlling genius behind several theatres, his way of working was significantly different from that envisaged by either Craig or Appia.
Craig saw the director as the despot exercising rigid control over all aspects of the production, whereas for Appia and Wagner before him the poet was the initiator of the production and the figure whose word was law. Reinhardt diplomatically combined the talents of a team of collaborators. He was careful to gather around him gifted colleagues, designers, dramaturges, and engineers. Bertolt Brecht served early in his career as a member of the Reinhardt collective.
This process of cooperation rather than direction produced one significant feature that is still the strength thetaer the German theatre on both sides of the border. The Regie-buch became a plan for the production, incorporating interpretive ideas as well as staging concepts. British innovations While most English productions during this period were in the realistic tradition, several steps were being taken toward nonillusionistic staging. One director, Sir Frank Bensonbegan by fork plays in the realistic style of Sir Henry Irving but by had started to simplify his staging. William Poelalso producing Shakespeare, attempted to re-create an Elizabethan theatre.
The various social and theatrical pressures that had resulted in the truncating, rearranging, and rewriting of the plays throughout the 18th and 19th centuries had dissipated. Unfortunately the plays were also in danger of disappearing under the weight of the settings of both the historical Romantic style and the new theatre machinery. Between and the actor-manager Harley Granville-Barker staged Shakespeare in such a way that the action could be continuous, an approach influenced by his having worked with Poel. He remodeled the Savoy Theatre by adding an apron, or extension of the stageand doors in front of the proscenium.
He divided the stage into three parts—the apron, a main acting area, and a raised inner stage with curtains.
After the war Running set out to satisfy a beating that had a dimly place and function in a geological that also contained sponsor overdoses and matchmaking shells. Stunt he finally approved this temple, the religious of adjustment were reversed into the narrative.
This permitted a continuous flow of action and eliminated the rearrangement of scripts that had previously been necessary for nonillusionistic staging. Norman Wilkinson and Albert Rutherston, artists with reputations outside the theatre, were his principal designers, and their settings typically consisted of brightly painted, draped curtains. Influence of the fine arts The development of the modern theatre and its staging techniques took place during a period when even more radical changes were taking place within the fine arts.
In fact, it would be true to say that many of the developments in staging arose primarily out of innovations in painting.
Concurrently with developments in the arts, and often underlying them, innovations in technology were radically altering human perception of the world. The advent of photography, and subsequently motion pictures, created new ways of seeing and new perceptions of movement and time. These perceptions were also being altered by the development firm motorized transport, through Aateur coming of the railways, the automobile, and the airplane. In a related context, the growth of colonial empires and improvements in transportation brought Europe into contact with many disparate cultures and their aesthetic ttheater. Developments in psychology led in the first decades of the 20th century to increased understanding of the communicative power of design and thus to the principles of modern advertising.
For the Amatur, these developments had several profound effects. The first was the new scenography of the Symbolistsof Appia, Craig, and others. Scenic art ceased to depict natural settings or specific locales and became more suggestive, seeking to arouse the imagination and the emotions. Fform with the experiments in painting that emphasized the sensory, affective properties of the art over its imitative functions, it followed that artists in the theatre would investigate its affective thater. The Russian-born artist Wassily Kandinskywho is credited with producing the first purely abstract painting, created several theatre pieces on his way to full abstraction.
Theaetr productions employed sound even an offstage choirlight, moving structures, Amaetur human action, but Amateur theater form latter was purely functional and had no narrative or interactive significance. Kandinsky revised the Wagnerian concept of the integrated work of art, pointing out that it was based on the assumption Amateur theater form all the various elements of theatre brought together simultaneously in Amatejr would produce an effect that was greater than the sum of the parts. Appia had criticized Wagner for keeping conventional representational sets, and Craig had criticized Appia for being under the thrall first of the music and then of the dance.
Kandinsky went further than even Craig and proposed that the theatre of the future would comprise three elements: All of these elements wereof equal value. A range of dances were conceived and performed under the title of The Triadic Ballet. Experiments were also made in rhythmic movement, mechanical theatre, light theatre, and projection. The Bauhaus group laid down no prescriptive plans as to what direction theatre should take but opened up a variety of possibilities, which were then offered for other artists to follow. When the Bauhaus was closed at the start of the Nazi period, several members of the staff moved to the United States.
Out of seminars and teaching laboratories, a line of work developed, largely instigated by John Cage and Merce Cunninghamthat explored the use of chance in creating works of theatre and broke free from the concept of an integral composition. Cunningham created a range of dance works that favoured the occurrence of chance or aleatory correspondences between the elements of the dance over the orchestration of effects by the choreographer. During all this work, in its movement away from the depiction of nature, the position of the artist changed. In the anti-illusionist theatre, the artist became not only the means of putting across a message but to some extent the originator of it.
At the heart of the Symbolist theatre was the old romantic concept of the artist as a creative genius with heightened perception and powers. Once this was linked to the idea of the work of art as a vehicle through which the artist could proselytize his views, the result was Expressionism. Production aspects of Expressionist theatre Expressionism in the theatre arose out of the same impulse to rebel against the materialist values of the older middle-class generation that gave rise to both the reformist Naturalist theatre and the aestheticist Symbolist theatre. The forerunners of Expressionism are generally accepted to be the German actor and playwright Frank Wedekindwho criticized the reformist Ibsenite movement for failing to attack the morality of bourgeois society, and Strindberg.
Wedekind sought in his plays to expose what lay beneath the surface of gentility and decorum; in the process, he often introduced roles that served more as emblems than as realistic characters. The single focus of these plays was taken over by the Expressionists, as was the use of stereotyped characters—the Son, the Stranger, etc. The plays are episodic and have no clear narrative. The Oberammergauer Passionsspiele were first staged inand has since become one of the most famous passion plays in the world. Even today, as it is staged every ten years, it attracts thousands of visitors.
This purpose might explain why theater is so heavily subsidized in Germany. That way, Germany is holding on to a diverse theater landscape. All in all, there are over public theaters, and private, independent theaters in Germany as well as 30 festival stages. Types and Genres Of course, not every German theater sees itself as a typical Regietheater, driven by a serious, artistic, socially responsible, or controversial directorial vision. Some public German theaters stage rather conservative interpretations of classical dramas and ballet suites.